# Vocabulary/semidot3

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`u;.3 y``u;._3 y`Max Cubes Adverb

Rank Infinity *-- operates on x and y as a whole --*
WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

The monad `(u;.3)y ` is a special case of the dyad ` x(u;.3)y ` (see below), where `x` holds the same size for all dimensions, given by ` (#$y) $ <./ $y `.

This means that `y` is effectively chopped into squares | cubes | hypercubes of side (`<./ $y`) –viz. the shortest axis of `y`– with a displacement by `1` at a time along each axis. `(u;._3)y ` works similarly.

Two-dimensional example:

]y=. 2 5 $ p: i.10 NB. a matrix 2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 29 (#$y) $ <./ $y NB. dimensions of moving square tile 2 2 u=. <: NB. some verb

Case `(;._3)` — concentrating on content:

<"2 ];._3 y NB. moving one step at a time +-----+-----+-----+-----+ | 2 3| 3 5| 5 7| 7 11| |13 17|17 19|19 23|23 29| +-----+-----+-----+-----+ <"2 u;._3 y NB. applying verb after each move +-----+-----+-----+-----+ | 1 2| 2 4| 4 6| 6 10| |12 16|16 18|18 22|22 28| +-----+-----+-----+-----+

Case `(;.3)` — also exploring boundaries:

<"2 ];.3 y NB. moving one step at a time +-----+-----+-----+-----+----+ | 2 3| 3 5| 5 7| 7 11|11 0| |13 17|17 19|19 23|23 29|29 0| +-----+-----+-----+-----+----+ |13 17|17 19|19 23|23 29|29 0| | 0 0| 0 0| 0 0| 0 0| 0 0| +-----+-----+-----+-----+----+ <"2 u;.3 y NB. verb applied, boundaries left untouched +-----+-----+-----+-----+----+ | 1 2| 2 4| 4 6| 6 10|10 0| |12 16|16 18|18 22|22 28|28 0| +-----+-----+-----+-----+----+ |12 16|16 18|18 22|22 28|28 0| | 0 0| 0 0| 0 0| 0 0| 0 0| +-----+-----+-----+-----+----+

Monadic `(u;.3)y ` is a special case of dyadic ` x(u;.3)y ` as show these examples, switching from square to rectangular tiles (still moving `1` at a time):

<"2 (2 2) u;.3 y NB. square tiles give the same result as with the monad +-----+-----+-----+-----+----+ | 1 2| 2 4| 4 6| 6 10|10 0| |12 16|16 18|18 22|22 28|28 0| +-----+-----+-----+-----+----+ |12 16|16 18|18 22|22 28|28 0| | 0 0| 0 0| 0 0| 0 0| 0 0| +-----+-----+-----+-----+----+ <"2 (2 1) u;.3 y NB. rectangular tiles ('portrait'), displacement 1 +--+--+--+--+--+ | 1| 2| 4| 6|10| |12|16|18|22|28| +--+--+--+--+--+ |12|16|18|22|28| | 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| +--+--+--+--+--+ <"2 (1 2) u;.3 y NB. rectangular tiles ('landscape'), displacement 1 +-----+-----+-----+-----+----+ |1 2 |2 4 |4 6 |6 10 |10 0| +-----+-----+-----+-----+----+ |12 16|16 18|18 22|22 28|28 0| +-----+-----+-----+-----+----+

The dyad will cater for different forms of the tile as well as displacement (or movement) vectors different from `(1 1)` implicitly used above.

### Common Uses

1. There are no common uses for (`u;.3 y`) or (`u;._3 y`) .
The verb computed by (`u;.3`) is invariably used with an actual x-argument.
Likewise (`u;._3`).

### Use These Combinations

(See below, where the corresponding section includes the monadic case.)

`x u;.3 y``x u;._3 y`Subarrays Adverb

Rank 2 _ *-- operates on tables of x and the entirety of y --*
WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

`x(u;._3)y ` applies verb `u` to each *tile* of a *regular tiling* of `y` specified by `x`.

** DEFINITION:** a

*tiling*of

`y`is a partitioning into smaller arrays, each having the same rank as

`y`.

A *regular* tiling is one in which all the (completed) tiles have the same shape.

The results are collected into an array.

Uncompleted tiles are discarded, i.e. tiles which spill over the boundary of the array.

(`u;.3`) is like (`u;._3`), except that the results from uncompleted tiles are **not** discarded.

Argument `x` defines the *tiling* of y.
It needs to specify where each tile starts and finishes.

** NOTE:** tiles can overlap. But we can assume:

- all tiles are the same shape
- if tiles overlap, they do so regularly
- the first tile always begins at coordinates (
`0 0`) for a matrix, (`0 0 0`) for a brick, and so on.

Therefore, as well as the tile shape,
all that's needed is to specify the starting-point coordinates of the second tile along the main diagonal of `y`.
This (set of coordinates) is called the *movement vector*, i.e. the displacement needed in each dimension to begin the next tile.

Typically, `x` has 2 rows:

- Row 0: the
*movement vector*(explained above) - Row 1: the shape of a tile (which is the same for all
**completed**tiles)

If `x` is a list, then it behaves the same as (`1,:x`)

]a =. 5 6 $ 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123' abcdef ghijkl mnopqr stuvwx yz0123 MovementVector=: 2 2 TileSize=: 2 4 ] x=: MovementVector ,: TileSize 2 2 2 4

Argument `x`, as given above, specifies the following manner of tiling the table `a`

(the *movement vector* (`2 2`) specifying the horizontal and vertical displacement necessary to move to the next tile)

Let's use this value of `x` to Box (`<`) each tile

u=: < NB. Box tiling_3=: ;._3 NB. discards uncompleted tiles tiling3=: ;.3 NB. includes uncompleted tiles x <tiling_3 a +----+----+ |abcd|cdef| |ghij|ijkl| +----+----+ |mnop|opqr| |stuv|uvwx| +----+----+ x <tiling3 a +----+----+--+ |abcd|cdef|ef| |ghij|ijkl|kl| +----+----+--+ |mnop|opqr|qr| |stuv|uvwx|wx| +----+----+--+ |yz01|0123|23| +----+----+--+

### Common uses

1. In image-processing applications, `x u;._3 y` can be used for filtering and convolution:

]image =. 255 * 5 5 $ 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 255 255 255 0 0 255 255 255 0 0 255 255 255 0 0 255 255 255 0 0 255 255 255 ]vsobel =. 3 3 $ _1 0 1 _2 0 2 _1 0 1 _1 0 1 _2 0 2 _1 0 1 (1 1,:3 3) (+/@:,@:*)&vsobel;._3 image NB. Convolution with the Sobel operator 1020 1020 0 1020 1020 0 1020 1020 0

### Related Primitives

Infix (`\`) — as in: (`x u\ y`).

### Details

1. A subarray of `y` has the same rank as `y`.

2. u **may not** be a cyclic gerund.

3. A negative value in the second row of `x` causes that axis to be reversed before `u` is applied.
(The absolute value is used for the length of the axis.)

4. Values of `_` and `__` in the second row of `x` indicate the full length of the corresponding axis.

5. If `x` is a list, it gives the shape of the subarrays, and a spacing vector of all `1`s is used. If `x` is an atom, it is treated as a 1-atom list.

6. When the spacing vector is 1, `u` is applied at each possible starting position.

7. If there is only one axis of motion, `x u;._3 y` is the same operation as `x u\ y`. *Exception:* if the length `x` is 0, `0 u\ y` has one more (empty) item in the result than `0 u;._3 y`.

8. If an atom in the spacing vector is 0, only position 0 is used for that axis.

9. Bug: if a length in `x` exceeds the length of the corresponding axis, the length of that axis in the result of `u;._3` should be `x` but in fact is the length of the axis.

### Oddities

1. Even if only one starting position in an axis is possible (because the spacing vector is 0 or the shape is _ for the axis),
the axis still appears in the shape of the result (in the frame of the result-cells).
This is different from the treatment of omitted axes in ` x u;.1 y`.

2. Trailing omitted axes (i. e. axes of `y` that are beyond the last column of `x`) are taken in full and **do not** appear in the frame of the result-cells.

### Use These Combinations

Combinations using `x ;.3 y` that have exceptionally good performance include:

**What it does****Type;**

**Precisions;**

Ranks**Syntax****Variants;**

**Restrictions****Benefits;**

**Bug Warnings**Operations on subarrays list or table `u;.3 y`

`x u;.3 y``;._3`in place of`;.3`avoids building cell indexes. Apply `;.3 _3`at rank 2 or lower