# Vocabulary/quoteco

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`": y`Default Format

Rank Infinity *-- operates on x and y as a whole --*
WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

Converts `y` to an array of bytes, converting non-character types to displayable form.

If `y` is already bytes, then `":y` is the same as `y`.

] y=: 1 2 3 ; 4 5 6 +-----+-----+ |1 2 3|4 5 6| +-----+-----+ ]z=: ": y +-----+-----+ |1 2 3|4 5 6| +-----+-----+ $ z 3 13

### Common uses

1. Embed a number `n` in an output message

which needs `n` to be in string form

n=: 99.5 smoutput 'Time taken: ' , (":n) , ' seconds' Time taken: 99.5 seconds

**Note:**
The verb `nb` (which hinges on the use of `":`) gives an easy way to make output messages

nb =: (;:^:_1) @: (":&.>) smoutput nb 'Time taken:';99.5;'seconds' Time taken: 99.5 seconds

2. Convert numbers to string form so they can be written to a file

]list =. 3 1 4 1 5 9 3 1 4 1 5 9 ": list 3 1 4 1 5 9

`5!:5 <'list'` is a more general way to create the string form of a noun: `list` .

### More Information

1. For more complex formatting using a format string to specify particular behavior, e.g. for negative numbers, or character insertion, like commas in a long number, see foreign *8!:0*.

2. You don't need to bother with the rank of `y` because `":` has infinite rank.
It automatically puts spaces within boxes and between numbers to line up everything correctly.
It does this no matter how many axes `y` has.
As a general rule, what you would see in the J session window is what you get in the result.

3. A box gets formatted as a byte table whose border uses the *box-drawing characters* set by Vocabulary/Foreigns#m9 (`9!:7`).
The contents of the box are formatted as a list or table.
If the rank of the contents exceeds 2, the contents are converted to a table by adding a blank row between the last cell of each axis and the following cell 0 for that axis.

4. Each 2-cell of `y` becomes a 2-cell of the result of ` ":y` .

5. If `y` is non-empty and boxed with rank less than 2, ` ":y ` is a table.

6. If `y` is empty or not boxed, and has rank less than 2, ` ":y ` is a list.

7. Each number in `y` is formatted independently.
If the number is complex, its real and imaginary parts are formatted independently.

8. Each character noun in `y` is formatted using Unicode (`8&u:"1`). This will leave byte precisions unchanged, but convert any unicodes to UTF-8 encoding. It may also add framing fill, if 1-cells have varying lengths after UTF-8 encoding.

9. The horizontal and vertical alignment for the contents of boxed `y` is set by Vocabulary/Foreigns#m9 (`9!:17`) and used as described for phrase (`x ": y`).

### Boxed `y`

When `y` is boxed, the contents of each box is formatted into a table of characters, and the contents of the boxes are separated by box-drawing characters to produce a ruled display.

The boxing characters produce a pleasant ruled display only when they are viewed with a monospace font, such as Courier New.

#### UTF-8 characters in boxes

When boxes contain non-ASCII byte strings, these strings are interpreted as UTF-8. `". y` performs the following steps:

1. If any string contains non-ASCII characters, it is converted to Unicode characters.

If the rank of `y` is greater than 1, each list of `y` is converted independently and the results assembled into an array.

2. If any string contains Unicode characters, either because the string started as Unicode or because it was converted to Unicode in step 1, all characters are converted to Unicode precision.

3. Boxing characters are installed, with the assumption that each character will occupy one space on the display

4. If the array has Unicode precision, it is converted back to byte precision, with each non-ASCII character represented as a multibyte UTF-8 sequence.

Because the lines of the Unicode array produced by step 2 may contain different numbers of non-ASCII characters, the final step of conversion back to byte precision may introduce spaces at the ends of lines. These spaces are required to produce a valid J result, since J does not support ragged arrays.

#### CJK (Chinese/Japanese/Korean) characters

Unicode characters for East Asian languages (referred to as Chinese/Japanese/Korean or * CJK*) require a special font for proper boxed display. Unifont is one such font. A suitable font must:

1. support two widths of character (called * fullwidth* and

*in the Unicode documents)*

**halfwidth**2. define each fullwidth character to be exactly twice as wide as each halfwidth character

3. define the boxing characters as halfwidth characters

4. give each character the proper width as defined by the Unicode standard

With a suitable font installed, boxed CJK characters will display correctly in their boxes.

Support for CJK characters inserts one extra step into the processing flow given above:

2a. Each fullwidth CJK character has a NUL character (U+0000) appended following the CJK character. Since the NUL character has no display, and the fullwidth character takes two display positions, the pair of characters takes a pair of display positions, and the internal array including the boxing characters does not require fill.

The added NUL characters are removed during the conversion of the Unicode characters to UTF-8-encoded bytes. If the original characters included NUL characters following fullwidth characters, those original NUL characters will be removed; if you need to keep them, you must duplicate the NUL character.

### Details

1. The *print precision* `d` is the number of digits of significance that will be displayed by ` ": y`.
By default it is the value set by (`9!:11`), initially 6, but it may be overridden by using the form ` ":!.d `.

2. The format for each number is specified in terms of the field specifiers used by `x ": y `:

**Field Specifier Used For Numbers****Type****Magnitude****Field Specifier**Integer `0`Floating

or

Complex`< 0.0001``0 j. -d`(scientific notation with d significant digits)`> 0.0001`

`< 10^d``0 j. 0 >. d - >. 10 ^.`(decimal notation, with a total of`value``d`significant digits)`>: 10^d``0 j. -d)`(scientific notation with`d-1`fractional digits)

3. Regardless of the field specifier, trailing zeros below the decimal point, and the decimal point itself if there are no nonzero decimal places, are omitted.

4. Box-drawing characters selected from the set specified by (`9!:7`) are placed around the contents of each box

tohex =: [: ,"2 ' ' (,"1) '0123456789ABCDEF' {~ 16 16 #: a. i. ] NB. display in hex 9!:6'' NB. Using the special boxing characters +++++++++|- tohex 9!:6 '' NB. This is their hex form 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1A tohex ": 5 ; 'abc' NB. displayable form is 3x6 array of bytes 10 1A 11 1A 1A 1A 12 19 35 19 61 62 63 19 16 1A 17 1A 1A 1A 18

Here `35` represents `5`, `61 62 63` represents `abc`, and the rest are box-drawing characters.
The byte indexes `10`-`1A` (hex) used above are special values that are translated to Unicode during display.

If you want to set your own boxing characters, use ` 9!:7 y ` where `y` is a list of precisely 11 bytes. This sets the box-drawing characters.

**The meaning of the bytes in**`9!:7 y`**Index****Meaning****Index****Meaning****Index****Meaning****Index****Meaning**`0`Top left corner + `3`Left tee + `6`Bottom left corner + `9`Vertical bar | `1`Top tee + `4`4-way intersection + `7`Bottom tee + `10`Horizontal bar - `2`Top right corner + `5`Right tee + `8`Bottom right corner +

5. When `y` is a sparse array, `": y` is a table of characters
with one row for each atom that is stored in the array.
The row contains the index list of the atom,
followed by `|`, followed by the value of the atom.

": %: $. i. 3 3 NB. Note that the atom at (0 0) is not stored 0 1 | 1 0 2 | 1.41421 1 0 | 1.73205 1 1 | 2 1 2 | 2.23607 2 0 | 2.44949 2 1 | 2.64575 2 2 | 2.82843

### Use These Combinations

Combinations using ` ": y` that have exceptionally good performance include:

**What it does****Type;**

**Precisions;**

Ranks**Syntax****Variants;**

**Restrictions****Benefits;**

**Bug Warnings**Convert an integer to a numeric list of digits Boolean, integer, extended integer `"."0@": y``@:``&``&:`in place of`@`fastest way, especially for extended integers

`x ": y`Format

Rank 1 _ *-- operates on lists of x and the entirety of y, with replication of atomic x --*
WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

Converts `y` to a byte array formatted according to the specification `x`

]y=: 2 2 $ 23.567 123456.23 _32.4 0.00347 23.567 123456 _32.4 0.00347 NB. --formatting looks capricious x=: 6j2 11j_5 NB. this format spec has an atom for each column of y x ": y 23.57 1.23456e5 _32.40 3.47000e_3

### Common Uses

1. Convert a number to a precise format

10j2 ": 6 6.00

2. Force *scientific notation* to appear

10j_2 ": 654000 6.54e5

### More Information

#### Numeric y

Let `y` be as follows:

] y=: 2 3 $ _3.56e5 6 _1 0.56789 0 1.56e_5 _356000 6 _1 0.56789 0 1.56e_5

1. Each atom of `x` is a *field specifier* for the corresponding atom in each 1-cell of `y`

7 5j1 8j3 ": y _356000 6.0 _1.000 1 0.0 0.000

If `x` is a single atom it is used to format every atom of `y`

This may result in the fractional part of some numbers getting dropped

7 ": y _356000 6 _1 1 0 0

2. The field specifier is a complex number (in the general case):

**Real part:**`w`field width **at least**the total characters occupied by the number in its field (with any (`-`) or (`.`))**Imaginary part:**`d`decimal places the **fixed**number of decimal places to show, for**every**number

12j3 ": y _356000.000 6.000 _1.000 0.568 0.000 0.000

**WARNING:** No space is automatically skipped between fields.

3. If either `w` or `d` above is negative, the number is displayed using J's own form of *scientific notation*, e.g. `_1.234e_4`

The absolute values of `w` and `d` are what get used for formatting.

12j_3 ": y NB. need to guess appropriate field width _3.560e5 6.000e0 _1.000e0 5.679e_1 0.000e0 1.560e_5

4. If the field width is 0, the field is made just wide enough to display the value, including

- the sign if negative
- the digits before the decimal point
- the decimal point, if the number of decimal places is not 0
- the decimal places
- the exponent and its optional sign (if
`x`asks for scientific notation) - a space, if there is another number following

0j3 ": y NB. auto calculates minimum field width required _356000.000 6.000 _1.000 0.568 0.000 0.000

The largest width needed at a given index in the 1-cell is used as the width for all numbers at that index.

5. If the field is too narrow for a given number (i.e. to hold its entire integer part), the entire field fills with asterisks.

6 ": y NB. not enough room in field ****** 6 _1 1 0 0

6. If `y` is complex, the imaginary part is ignored.

]z=: y + 0j999 _356000j999 6j999 _1j999 0.56789j999 0j999 1.56e_5j999 0j_3 ": z _3.560e5 6.000e0 _1.000e0 5.679e_ 0.000e0 1.560e_

7. Alternative ways to format numbers:

#### Boxed y

1. `x` is an atom, or a list 1 or 2 atoms, giving the *alignment* of box-contents. If only one value is given, `0` is used for the second atom.

**Alignment specified by**`x`when`y`is boxed**First atom of**`x`**Second atom of**`x`**0**top left **1**center center **2**bottom right

]a =. 2 2 $ 'a';'b';'c';3 3$'*' NB. A boxed array default left/top +-+---+ |a|b | +-+---+ |c|***| | |***| | |***| +-+---+ 1 ": a NB. Display with alignment center/left +-+---+ |a|b | +-+---+ | |***| |c|***| | |***| +-+---+ 1 2 ": a NB. Display with alignment center/right +-+---+ |a| b| +-+---+ | |***| |c|***| | |***| +-+---+

2. The contents of each box of `y` are formatted using Default Format (`": y`), **except** that the alignment specified by `x` is used at all levels of boxing.

]a =. 2 2 $ 123456789000 ; 0.00000000001 ; (<'b') ; <('+++';'+'),:'a';3 3 $ '*' NB. default top/left +----------+---------+ |1.23457e11|1e_11 | +----------+---------+ |+-+ |+---+---+| ||b| ||+++|+ || |+-+ |+---+---+| | ||a |***|| | || |***|| | || |***|| | |+---+---+| +----------+---------+ 2 1 ": a NB. bottom/center +----------+---------+ |1.23457e11| 1e_11 | +----------+---------+ | |+---+---+| | ||+++| + || | |+---+---+| | || |***|| | +-+ || |***|| | |b| || a |***|| | +-+ |+---+---+| +----------+---------+ 1 2 ": a NB. center/right +----------+---------+ |1.23457e11| 1e_11| +----------+---------+ | |+---+---+| | ||+++| +|| | +-+|+---+---+| | |b||| |***|| | +-+|| a|***|| | || |***|| | |+---+---+| +----------+---------+

### Oddities

1. If `y` is empty, its type still determines what values of `x` are permitted.

This is not an error but it is unusual for J to do this sort of thing.